Many dramatic events occurred after the Partition.

A. First, read the following extract from BBC INDIA PAKISTAN TIMELINE 1947:

“The partition of the Subcontinent, however, led to severe rioting and population movement as Muslims, Sikhs and Hindus found themselves on the wrong side of the partitioned provinces of Punjab and Bengal. The latter of these became East Pakistan. An estimated half a million people died in communal violence, millions more became homeless.” […] Over 50 years later, Pakistanis still believe that Jammu and Kashmir should have become part of Pakistan because the majority of the state's population, concentrated in the valley of Kashmir, is Muslim.

India, says the state of Jammu and Kashmir belongs to India because by the October 1947 instrument of accession, the Maharaja finally agreed to join India.”

B. Then, read the following extract from MR DOWLING 's website:

“British and Indian leaders decided that the only solution to the conflict was a partition that separated the continent into Hindu and Muslim states. In 1947, the Indian subcontinent became the independent nations of India and Pakistan. Pakistan was made up of two regions: West Pakistan on the Indus River plain, and East Pakistan (now Bangladesh), more than 1,100 km away. Important parts of what was once considered India were now in other nations. The Indus River, for which the subcontinent is named, became part of Pakistan after the partition.” […]

Twelve million people were forced to move-Hindus to India, Muslims to Pakistan-in one of the greatest migrations of refugees in history. Both groups moved because they feared being ruled by leaders of the other faith. The journey was long and torturous. Many people were forced to leave their possession or trade them for water. Hunger, thirst and exhaustion killed others. Additionally, an estimated one million people were killed in religious warfare."

C. To conclude, read BBC's introduction to “Indian-Pakistan troubled relations”:

“Ever since the partition of the sub-continent in 1947, when Britain dismantled its Indian empire, India and Pakistan have been arch rivals. The animosity has its roots in religion and history, and is epitomised by the long-running conflict over the state of Jammu and Kashmir. This has recently escalated into a dangerous nuclear arms race.”

1. Note down six questions about the Partition of India.

2. Ask them to your classmates.

3. Discuss what you have learnt.


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